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Model designed through participatory processes: whose model is it?

Abstract : Participatory modelling is increasing steadily in importance because of opportunities to obtain new; kinds of information, perspectives on validation and implementation of social learning. The concept of participation is spreading towards modelling processes. It uses a wide range of approaches, however, differing notably in relation to timing and involvement of stakeholders in the design process. The inclusion of stakeholders in the design process might alter the usual notion of authorship as well as ownership or appropriation of these models. In this paper we address the issue of ownership of participatory-designed models through examples that have been investigated in the FIRMA project, and through discussion on timing and level of involvement of stakeholders in the design process. The issue of ownership of models itself has to be explained because it is made up of several property regimes. As far as models are concerned these various facets of ownership are: authorship, allowance of use, permission to modify, responsibility for content, responsibility for use, control of access, control of use, and defining the proper use of models. If these facets of ownership are not properly defined, this may generate several types of conflict or under-use of the model. Technological control and legal control are the current ways of dealing with this issue of ownership through passwords, licenses, software agreements, specific interfaces, etc. Their translation to participatory-designed models may not be easy since there is a required dispersal of the model among participants, and any form of appropriation of the result by only one party of the participatory process might be difficult to justify. Participatory modelling (PM) is, however, also paving the way for a third way of dealing with this issue of model ownership through the development of mutual appropriation of the model: i.e. through a thorough and pragmatic knowledge of the model. This third way is analysed through three case studies of PM, all within the frame of the FIRMA project. PM in itself is not sufficient to make 2 this third way enforceable. The issue of timing and level of involvement of stakeholders in design and use has to be considered. Ownership of models is the result of this pattern of interactions among stakeholders (including scientists) mediated by the model itself. Résumé La modélisation participative est de plus en plus fréquente, étendant le concept de participation à l'activité de modélisation. Elle utilise une large gamme d'approches, se différentiant par le niveau et le temps d'implication des acteurs. L'inclusion des acteurs dans la conception altère les notions usuelles de propriété et d'appropriation. Dans cette communication nous nous intéressons à la question de l'appropriation de modèles conçus de manière participative dans le même contexte du projet de recherche FIRMA, via une discussion du niveau et du phasage de l'implication des acteurs. L'appropriation des modèles est discutée selon plusieurs dimensions : droits d'auteur, droits d'usage, droits de modification, responsabilité vis-à-vis du contenu, contrôle d'accès et définition des conditions d'usage. SI ces différentes dimensions ne sont pas correctement appréhendées cela peut amener à des situations de conflit ou de sous emploi des modèles produits dans des démarches participatives. Le contrôle technologique ou légal sont les moyens courant actuels pour traiter cette question sur les modèles produits de manière classique. Leur traduction pour des modèles produits de manière participative est difficile du fait de la distribution des droits et responsabilités perçus. La modélisation participative propose une troisième voie vie une appropriation mutuelle des modèles ainsi produits, impliquant une connaissance profonde et pragmatique de ces modèles. Nous analysons cette troisième voie au travers d'une comparaison des études de cas du projet Firma. L'appropriation des modèles et le résultat de processus d'interactions entre les différents acteurs (inclus les modélisateurs), via l'intermédiaire du modèle lui-même.
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  • HAL Id : hal-01779503, version 1

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Olivier Barreteau, Matt Hare, Jörg Krywkow, Annabelle Boutet. Model designed through participatory processes: whose model is it?. Joint Conference On MultiAgent Modelling for Environmental Management, CABM-HEMA-SMAGET 2005, Mar 2005, Bourg Saint-Maurice, France. ⟨hal-01779503⟩

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