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L'économie des plateformes, entre rente et communs

Abstract : The economics of platforms is formally manifested by a deconstruction of the traditional business model. Digital platforms appear as hybrid organizations between markets and companies, challenging the established categories of economic theory. They are asserting themselves both as a break with the corporate model of managerial capitalism (Galbraith), characterized by its hierarchical structure and its function of productive integration, and with the market model as a system of price regulation and resource allocation. They are also confronted with neo-institutionalist theory, where the discriminating function of the firm analyzed in the Coase-Williamson way conditions the reduction of transaction costs. The main factor in the deconstruction of the firm as a combination of productive assets remains the dominance of the financial economy over the real economy, with the permanent incentive being the ability to create shareholder value. In this respect, agency theory (Jensen and Meckling) captures well the nature and forms of organization of platforms, formalizing the financial approach to the firm. In line with this interpretation, the market replaces the institution in the platform economy, substituting contractualization, outsourcing and remote control for the firm that internalizes and combines the factors of production, with a conflict of responsibility towards work, integrated in one case, and placed outside the norms of the organization in the other. Consequently, the platform economy opens up to the domination of a rent based-economy in relation to different categories of users and States. But it also gives rise in return to alternative studies and experiences (Bauwens, Scholz, Casilli, Méda, Stiegler), based on the introduction of contributory principles and common ownership of the platforms, innovations and instruments of the digital economy. The platform economy thus oscillates between the appropriation of rents and the demand for a common good that is a factor of "collective creation", in the sense of François Perroux.
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https://hal-imt-atlantique.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02886753
Contributor : Philippe Beraud <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, July 1, 2020 - 5:44:45 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, September 29, 2020 - 3:48:39 PM

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  • HAL Id : hal-02886753, version 1

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Philippe Beraud, Franck Cormerais. L'économie des plateformes, entre rente et communs. Etudes digitales, Classiques Garnier, 2020, Les plateformes, 2019-2 (8). ⟨hal-02886753⟩

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