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L'économie des plateformes

Abstract : The economics of platforms The articles in the report focus on different theoretical and methodological approaches and questions related to the economics of digital platforms, as well as concrete experiences as alternatives to the neo-liberal orientation of platforming. The contribution of Annie Blandin and Elisabeth Lehagre, who introduce the issue, aims to show the advances and limits of the General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR). The article shows that, while the GDPR focuses on protecting persons subject to automated individual decisions, the exercise of rights is complicated and uneven and must deal with the regulation of platforms on the basis of the principles of fairness and transparency. Michel Renault's article looks at the moral dimensions of the functioning of the economy dominated by platforming. The author endeavours to study these dimensions using representations of a "liquid world" and an argumentation on the concepts of "crowd" and "public". For their part, Athina Karatzogianni and Jacob Matthews analyze the ideological production linked to digital platforms in the field of collaborative economy. The article distinguishes three ideological orientations, the neo-liberal vision, that of a reformist capitalism, and the more radical approach of cooperativism and commons. Clément Morlat's contribution is part of the contributory economy perspective. The author analyses the articulation between a microeconomic accounting (CARE-TDL), based on the collective construction of a new relationship between capital and the preservation of ecosystems, and a multi-stakeholder platform (ePLANETe.Blue) encouraging participation around evaluation criteria and methods. The author argues for the association of these two tools, which can provide relevant economic information to promote the governance of the commons. Based on open innovation strategies, Isabelle Liotard and Valérie Revest propose a comparison of the business models of two innovation platforms, one private and the other public. The article shows that the private platform is interested in the rapid and low-cost resolution of business innovation issues, whereas the intermediation provided by the public platform aims to generate work on major technological and societal issues. For his part, Antoine Henry analyses the transition towards a platform organisation, implemented by a virtual community of practice, in the energy sector. The author shows that this form of self-organization contributes to responding both to changes in the sector and to the challenges of the energy transition. The contribution of Olivier Thuillas and Louis Wiart focuses on the reactions of booksellers in France to the domination of Amazon and Fnac in the online bookshop. The authors show that alternative proposals are still few and far between, combining the sites of large bookshops and some twenty collective platforms. However, the article underlines that these initiatives have the merit of transposing the values of the independent bookshop into the digital field. For their part, Kevin Poperl and the co-authors of the article present a concrete case of a European cooperative of mutualisation (CoopCycle), in the field of delivery where digital platforms are operating, most often based on private interest and task-based. The intention of the authors is to highlight the exemplary nature of this experience, with a view to encouraging similar initiatives in the field of commons.
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https://hal-imt-atlantique.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02886802
Contributor : Philippe Beraud <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, July 1, 2020 - 6:21:49 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, September 29, 2020 - 3:48:39 PM

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  • HAL Id : hal-02886802, version 1

Citation

Philippe Béraud, Franck Cormerais. L'économie des plateformes. Etudes digitales, 2019-2 (8), Garnier, 2020, Les plateformes. ⟨hal-02886802⟩

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